A long time ago, in May 1977, filmmaker George Lucas launched a blockbuster movie franchise and global phenomenon with the release of Star Wars. Originally comprised of three motion pictures, three more were released beginning in 1999.1 In late 2015, the films continue with Star Wars: Episode VII—The Force Awakens, to be followed by two additional films in 2017 and 2019. The Star Wars films have significantly influenced millions of people the world over, and not just children. With stunning special effects, archetypal characters, and epic storylines, Star Wars remains a major influence not only in filmmaking but also in areas of merchandising, theme parks, video games, books, television programs, graphic novels, and in philosophy and religion. In 2012, media empire Disney purchased Lucasfilm, including the rights to the Star Wars franchise, for $4 billion, ensuring continued exposure of the Star Wars worldview. Nearly forty years after the release of A New Hope, the films and their various derivative properties remain an influential global force on the collective human experience. With combined box office totals for six films in excess of $4.4 billion2 and merchandising revenue estimated at $27 billion,3 Star Wars wields considerable influence. This article will evaluate the Star Wars worldview, concentrating primarily on its metaphysical views, but also touching on ethics and epistemology.4
EVALUATING THE NEW LITERATURE
Some might object to analysis of the Star Wars films. After all, they’re “just” movies. On one level, we can enjoy the films as entertainment, but in other ways we must respond to the ideas underlying the films, especially given the extent of their reach. Films can have a powerful influence on worldviews—how we see and understand reality. No medium, be it film, art, literature, or music, exists in a vacuum. In short, ideas have consequences.
In addition, film is in many respects the new “literature.” The world has largely shifted from an age of print-based exposition to an age of film-based entertainment.5 This radical shift requires apologists to adapt, particularly by learning to exegete film. We must learn to apply the skills of hermeneutical interpretation and analysis to film that we are used to applying to print.
But how can we go about evaluating popular culture sensibly?6 In Art and the Bible, Francis Schaeffer provides four ways of evaluating art: “(1) technical excellence, (2) validity, (3) intellectual content, the worldview which comes through and (4) the integration of content and vehicle”7 (emphasis in original). There is no doubt that Star Wars pushes technical boundaries. This was especially true in relation to the first three films, which all came before the advent of powerful computer-generated graphics. Instead, George Lucas and his team had to derive creative ways of presenting epic material on the big screen. It is in the area of technical excellence that Star Wars demonstrates common grace, meaning that since human beings are created in God’s image, everyone possesses the capacity to contribute positively to the world via exemplary achievements. As such, Star Wars contains examples of superb music, sound effects, visual arts, and more.
Validity in relation to the judgment of art means “whether an artist is honest to himself and to his worldview or whether he makes his art only for money or for the sake of being accepted.”8 Applied to filmmaking, has the filmmaker “sold out” in some way or compromised their ideals? Even a cursory study of George Lucas and his creation of A New Hopedemonstrates his bold commitment to his art, including the philosophical ideas underpinning the story.9
Schaeffer also asked if the form of the artistic content is the best fit for conveying the artist’s ideas, specifically looking at “how well the artist has suited the vehicle to the message. For those art works which are truly great, there is a correlation between the style and the content. The greatest art fits the vehicle that is being used to the worldview that is being presented.”10 Given the popularity of motion pictures as an influential contemporary entertainment form, combined with Lucas’s mastery of the cinematic medium, one can conclude that film is indeed the best form for Star Wars.
Finally, what kind of ideas does a work of art present, and are the ideas correct or not? “As far as a Christian is concerned,” says Schaeffer, “the worldview that is shown through a body of art must be seen ultimately in terms of the Scripture. The artist’s worldview is not to be free from the judgment of the Word of God.”11 We must be careful, however, not to dismiss all ideas originating in non-Christian sources. Truth, after all, can be mixed with error. Given the scope of common grace, even an existentialist work of despair, for example, can contribute positively by helping people see their helplessness apart from God, thus driving them to seek meaning.
The remainder of this article will focus on the intellectual content of the Star Wars films, specifically looking at the philosophical and religious ideas, their implications, and how they compare to Christianity. First, let us ask, “Can anything good come from Star Wars?”
A FORCE FOR GOOD?
While some Christians have overly praised Star Wars’ benefits,12 it remains true that there are positive elements in the films. First, heroes in Star Wars often seek wisdom. Luke Skywalker, the archetypal young hero, truly desires to learn and grow in wisdom, seeking instruction from the elderly Jedi Obi-Wan and, later, Yoda. Wisdom is valuable, as Scripture repeatedly states (see Proverbs 8, for example), but our search for wisdom must be tempered with discernment. Second, characters in the Star Wars films often desire to do good. They see difficulties and injustices that they wish to correct, whether it is overthrowing a corrupt empire, freeing slaves, or opposing oppression. Third, characters in the films are determined to combat evil. This is seen in rebel opposition to the villain Darth Vader, as well as by seeking to destroy the planet-obliterating Death Star (A New Hope). Fourth, at times characters behave altruistically, sacrificing themselves for others. In A New Hope, for example, Obi-Wan risks his life in order to allow his friends to escape, then willingly allows Darth Vader to strike him down. Fifth, the films demonstrate that faith and truth are in some ways a journey that each of us must persevere to complete. In The Empire Strikes Back, for example, Luke receives training that requires him to face dark fears as well as make a decision to help his friends, costing him the loss of a hand. As Kierkegaard stated, “Truth is not something you can appropriate easily and quickly…you must be tried, do battle, and suffer if you are to acquire truth for yourself.”13 Finally, overcoming temptation is viewed positively, especially in reference to those who reject the “dark side” of the Force.
THE STAR WARS WORLDVIEW
The Star Wars worldview is syncretistic. Like the New Age movement of the 1970s, 1980s, and beyond, Star Wars blends a variety of elements from disparate religions and philosophies.14 Unfortunately, what often occurs when this is attempted is a jumble of incoherent, contradictory ideas. Consequently, Star Wars hardly presents a coherent worldview. There are elements that bind the Star Wars philosophy together—the Force and desire to bring balance to it, for instance—but as a whole, the Star Wars worldview is a blending of ideas, religions, and philosophies. These ideas do not hold together well on their own and certainly do not hold together when mashed together.
What are some of the philosophical and religious threads that weave through the fabric of Star Wars?
It is beyond the scope of this article to evaluate each of these viewpoints thoroughly. Nevertheless, a brief mention of each, their presentation in Star Wars, and their relevance in relation to Christianity is in order.
Gnosticism. One key aspect of Gnosticism is its view that matter is “bad,” while spirit is “good.” In The Empire Strikes Back, Yoda states, “Luminous beings are we, not this crude matter.” In contrast, Christianity does not oppose physical matter. As C. S. Lewis stated, “[God] likes matter. He invented it.”15 This is why we see the early Christian church responding to forms of Gnosticism, such as in 1 John 1:1: “That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we looked upon and have touched with our hands” (ESV). Christ was not simply a spirit creature seeking to show His followers that flesh is bad, and spirit is good. Rather, Christ truly did come in the flesh—the Incarnation.
Taoism. A Chinese philosophy, one element of Taoism has to do with the dualism of yin and yang, which are “opposing, but, at the same time, balancing and interacting forces within nature.”16 In The Phantom Menace, a discussion about a “chosen one” leads to the question, “You refer to the prophecy of the one who will bring balance to the force?” In Attack of the Clones, one character says to Obi-Wan, “If the prophecy is true, your apprentice is the only one who can bring the Force back into balance.” Within the worldview of Star Wars, the Force consists of light and dark sides, but rather than seeing these sides as truly good or bad, the goal of the Jedi is to balance the Force, much like yin and yang. Although Christianity is sometimes accused of holding to dualism, this is false. God and Satan are in conflict, but this is not in any way portrayed in Scripture as dualism or Taoism. God is the all-powerful Creator of the universe and all that is in it, while Satan is a created, finite being.
Hinduism. Hinduism is a broad family of beliefs, allowing for some degree of diversity. However, when it comes to forms of Hinduism that involve nondualistic or monistic pantheism, such as Advaita Vedanta, Star Wars suggests much of this perspective. In monistic pantheism, all is one, and all is permeated by an impersonal energy or force. In A New Hope, Obi-Wan remarks, “The Force is what gives a Jedi his power. It’s an energy field created by all living things. It surrounds us and penetrates us, it binds the galaxy together.” In The Empire Strikes Back, Yoda states, “Life creates it [the Force], makes it grow, its energy surrounds us and binds us…you must feel the Force around you, here between you, me, the tree, the rock, everywhere.” Pantheism is completely foreign to the Christian worldview. Within Christianity, as in Judaism, God is the transcendent Creator who is separate from creation; He acts in the world, but He is not an impersonal energy force flowing through it.
Buddhism. Like other world religions, Buddhism is diverse, but relevant points include the view that spiritual liberation or enlightenment relies on detachment from desire. Jedi in certain respects follow the path of Zen Buddhism, training their minds on the path to enlightenment as they seek to achieve an elevated state (Buddhahood). Much of the training administered by Yoda is rooted in such Buddhist ideals. In Revenge of the Sith, we are told, “Train yourself to let go of everything you fear to lose,” thus approximating the Buddhist teaching to avoid attachments.17
Meditation. Meditation, too, plays a key role in Star Wars—particularly meditation that seeks to clear the mind. In The Phantom Menace, Yoda encourages a character to “quiet your mind” in order truly to get in touch with the Force. In Christianity, the central human problem is not attachment or desire but human sin, and the solution is radical repentance and redemption that is available only through Christ, not Buddhist-inspired meditation. Moreover, Christian meditation is not to empty the mind or achieve enlightenment but to focus on God and His truths.
Occultism. Occultism seeks to access or manipulate supernatural or paranormal powers. In Star Wars, occult elements include levitation, telepathy, telekinesis, mind reading, divination, clairvoyance, and contact with ascended masters (spiritism). In passages such as Deuteronomy 18, Scripture forbids occult practices, which rely not on God but on evil powers.
DO WHAT YOU FEEL IS RIGHT
At first glance, the Star Wars films appear to favor a moral universe, especially when one considers the extent various heroes go to thwart evil. However, the foundation of ethics for Star Wars is sand. If the Force is all one, permeating everything, then there is no room for actual evil or actual good. In Revenge of the Sith, one character says, “Only Siths [dark Jedi] deal in absolutes,” suggesting moral relativism. If all is truly one, then there is no room for ethical disagreements. Good and evil are part of the same whole and ethics in such a structure degenerate to relativism.
The epistemology of Star Wars fares no better. In The Phantom Menace, a Jedi says, “Feel, don’t think,” which succinctly sums up the Star Wars approach to knowledge. Truth is also relative within Star Wars. In Return of the Jedi, Obi-Wan states, “Many of the truths we cling to depend on our point of view.” Prior to this, Obi-Wan justifies a lie by stating, “What I told you was true, from a certain point of view.” Within the framework of Star Wars philosophy, epistemology is largely subjective, as are its ethics. Its ethics are moral relativism or situational ethics, not Christian ethics rooted in God’s transcendent and absolute moral standards.
FORCE AND FAITH
Does Star Wars present Christian themes and provide us with a sort of Christian allegory? No. Many key ideas in the Star Wars films are rooted in non-Christian religion and philosophy. There is no way to reconcile the personal, transcendent God of Christianity with the impersonal, pantheistic Force of Star Wars. Moreover, those who would see the Holy Spirit as equivalent to the Force are theologically confused. The Holy Spirit is the third personof the Trinity, not an impersonal “force,” energy, or breath of God. Furthermore, even though Anakin Skywalker is said to be the “chosen one” and of virgin birth, such superficial similarities to Christ are radically different from the nature, purpose, and atoning work of Jesus. As to the dualism of Star Wars, while it is true that Christianity includes elements of good and evil as part of the cosmic struggle recounted in the Bible, the manner in which it is presented is far different than the way it is presented in Star Wars.
Death in the Star Wars universe joins the enlightened with the impersonal Force, but Christianity posits that death unites believers with the personal God of the universe while they retain their individuality. Redemption in Christianity, moreover, is the result of repentance and trust in Christ and His atoning work that God offers via grace, not works. Star Wars offers self-driven enlightenment via the path of the Jedi through what essentially amounts to works. Finally, in Revenge of the Sith, we are told that a deceased Jedi “has learned the path to immortality,” suggesting that esoteric knowledge can lead to immortality.
MAY THE FORCE BEWITCH YOU
George Lucas once said, “I remember when I was 10 years old, I asked my mother, ‘If there is only one God, why are there so many religions?’ I’ve been pondering that question ever since, and the conclusion I’ve come to is that all religions are true.”18 It is no surprise, then, that the Star Wars worldview promotes a syncretism of beliefs that is at odds with the central tenets of Christianity. Moreover, enlightenment is not salvation. Star Wars posits a works-based system of salvation that is self-centered, not Savior-centered. In the religion of the Jedi, individuals are in charge of their own enlightenment. When it comes to questions of truth and knowledge, Christianity calls us to test evidence, using the intellect to understand and critically investigate. Faith is involved, but it is not a blind faith. In contrast, the world of Star Wars encourages individuals to “feel” rather than “think” and to search inside themselves for answers. This is not to say that we should dismiss all intuition, but it should not be our guiding principle of seeking truth.
Finally, we must not allow the technical brilliance and special effects of Star Wars to overpower our understanding or assessment of the worldview the films communicate. High production values do not always equal high truth values. This does not mean we cannot appreciate the films as artistic expressions or enjoy them as entertainment, but it does mean that we cannot overlook or dismiss the confused ideas they present or the influence those ideas can have on viewers.
Robert Velarde is author of several books including A Visual Defense (Kregel Publications, 2013), Conversations with C. S. Lewis (InterVarsity Press, 2008), The Wisdom of Pixar(InterVarsity Press, 2010), The Heart of Narnia (NavPress, 2008), and Examining Alternative Medicine (InterVarsity Press, 2001). He received his master’s degree from Southern Evangelical Seminary.
I’ll confess that I feel sorry for contemporary atheists. There was a time when “atheism” simply meant “rejecting belief in a God or gods.” Thanks to the rise of New Atheism, things are not so simple for the modern atheist. Today, the discerning skeptic can choose from a smorgasbord of brands, including antitheism, nontheism, friendly atheism, militant atheism, activist atheism, agnostic atheism, and plain old-fashioned atheism. Old-fashioned atheists are a straightforward bunch; they have rejected belief in God for emotional or intellectual reasons that they usually can articulate. Atheism is just something they happen to believe.
The newer atheists are a different kettle of fish: atheism is part of their identity, and they consider themselves part of a movement. They have arguments for atheism, but usually these have been copied and pasted from Dawkins and Hitchens and can be reduced to the length of a “tweet.” They often are passionate about their branch of “atheist movement” yet also will insist that atheism isn’t actually a belief system. In other words, their thinking tends to be a little addled, and this makes reasoning with them difficult.Five Differences between Sharia and Old Testament Law By David Wood
Although numerous politicians, reporters, and Muslim organizations assure concerned Westerners that the actions of ISIS, Boko Haram, al-Qaeda, al-Shabab, and the Taliban have little or nothing to do with Islam, anyone familiar with Islam’s most trusted sources knows that beheadings, terrorism, and the sexual exploitation of female captives were practiced and promoted by Muhammad and his companions. Hence, challenging the actions of terrorist groups ultimately requires challenging the teachings of Islam.
But there is a difficulty for Christians who oppose violence committed in the name of Allah. The Old Testament contains harsh punishments similar to those found in the Qur’an and the Hadith,1 and the wars of Joshua bear some resemblance to the wars of Muhammad and the “rightly guided” caliphs. How, then, can Christians condemn the attacks carried out by ISIS without thereby condemning our own scriptures? Are we simply being inconsistent?
In this article, we will consider five important differences between sharia (Islamic law) and Old Testament law. Before we discuss the differences, however, we should take note of the similarities that lead to charges of inconsistency.Reading a Sci-fi, Pro-life Theodicy in Arrival By John McAteer
Arrival is classic “hard” science fiction in the tradition of Arthur C. Clarke and Isaac Asimov novels from the 1950s and ‘60s. What makes it science fiction is not that it depicts the arrival on Earth of alien spaceships but that it attempts to imagine this scenario in the context of real-life science. Like all the best sci-fi stories, Arrival takes a theoretical scientific hypothesis and extrapolates the implications of that real idea into a fictional future.
One thing that puzzles physicists is the “arrow of time.” In quantum physics, certain mathematical formulas are symmetrical, meaning they work both forward and backward with regard to time. In real life, we all know that time “flows” in only one direction—you can’t change the past—but there is no mathematical reason for this. Arrival asks the question, what if it is only our language that prevents us from understanding time differently?
The idea is that since human language is spoken, it happens in time. Every sentence has a beginning, middle, and end, and the meaning of the sentence is determined by the temporal order in which the words are spoken. (Even languages like Latin whose word order can be very flexible, especially in poetry, still has a typical word order in ordinary contexts where real-time communication is the goal.) Written language works the same way, because written words are symbols of spoken words. Arrival imagines an alien civilization with a completely different kind of language.